The purpose of this Blog

This blog is to detail my 43 years (1973 - 2016) with a 1928 Chevrolet tourer, affectionately called "The Red Chev".

The acquisition, restoration, improvements and my experiences over the years are covered in as much detail as I can remember.

Some of the later postings include car club outings and other vintage car items that I hope will be of interest to people.

If you have the time, scroll back to where it all began in 1973 and follow the journey so far.

Thanks for dropping by.

Regards Ray Dean


See my new section "The Red Chev - Repairs, Improvements, Maintenance and Technical Details" located on the left hand side of the screen.




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Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Timeline of motoring history

 


The following is an abridged timeline of motoring history which primarily concentrates on developments in Europe and North America and covers the progressive introduction of motorised road transport from the end of the 17th Century onwards.

 
 
 
1679
Practical French scientist Denis Papin invents the pressure-cooker or ‘digester’.
1690
Many before him have experimented with single charges of gunpowder as a means of moving a piston in a bore but, Denis Papin publishes his ideas for harnessing steam as an alternative, to achieve repeated cycles of movement. In doing so, he recognises the potential for a mechanical alternative to animals for mobilising carriages. He goes on to build the first steam engine, which is used to pump water to a canal running between Kassel and Karlshaven in Germany.
1698
English military engineer Thomas Savery uses Papin’s ‘Digester’ as the basis of a crude steam engine for pumping water out of flooded mine-shafts.
1712
Denis Papin, visiting London in the hope of finding patronage, writes to a friend reporting his failure and asking for financial support to pay for his return to Germany. Never heard of again, it is likely that Papin died in London in abject poverty and complete anonymity.

Thomas Newcomen, an "ironmonger" and blacksmith of Dartmouth, England, patents the "Atmospheric Steam Engine" and, together with John Calley starts to build and sell engines for pumping water out of mines.
1765
James Watt, while engaged in repairing a Newcomen engine, comes up with several improvements which substantially change its method of operation and increase its efficiency. In so doing he lays a firm foundation for the design of all steam engines yet to come.
1769
In Paris, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, a military engineer, demonstrates a self propelled steam vehicle - the first on record. The French government requests Cugnot to design and build a larger vehicle, capable of moving large amounts of artillery.

1770
At the French government’s immense cost, Cugnot builds ‘Fardier’ a large three- wheeled artillery carriage and creates history’s first motor accident by knocking down part of a wall.
1787
Oliver Evans of Maryland patents a steam engine for the use in powering carts and carriages.
1801
Richard Trevithick, an early pioneer of the Steam Railway, builds the first successful motor vehicle, and drives it through Camborne, Cornwall. Four days later it is destroyed by fire.
1803
Trevithick builds a second steam powered carriage, which makes several successful runs through the streets of London. Unfortunately it also frightens horses and kindles considerable public hostility.
1805
In 1804 Oliver Evans, builds the world's first amphibious vehicle, ‘Orukter Amphibolas’, a steam powered dredger on wheels, for the Philadelphia Health Service. In July of 1805 it makes a one and a half mile journey from Central-Square to the banks of the Schuykill. It weighs 20 tons and is powered by a 5 HP twin cylinder beam engine driving both the paddle and 2 wheels. With no method of steering on land, the vehicle is much more successful as a boat.
 
1807
In Switzerland, Francois Isaac de Rivaz builds, and demonstrates the first working internal combustion engine. It is fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and reliant on a foot-operated exhaust valve. Mounted on small trolley, travels just a few metres.
1816
Concerned about the number of people being killed by exploding steam engines Reverend Robert Stirling invents and patents an alternative which is not only safer but also much more efficient. It runs on hot air and rotation is caused by heat differentials as it passes between various parts of the engine. It can use a number of alternative fuels to heat the air and, in spite of its improved safety and superior efficiency, it remains largely ignored for use in vehicles.
1826
Samuel Brown patents and builds his “gas-and-vacuum” engine. It has two cylinders linked by a rocking beam, with a capacity of 8,800cc and an output of just 4hp. The engine powering a carriage successfully drives up Shooters Hill at Blackheath, on the outskirts of London.
1829
Goldsworthy Gurney, having built his ‘London and Bath’ steam coach, sets out on the world’s first long distance coach service, a round trip from London to Bath and back. While the outward journey is marked by many breakdowns the return journey is accomplished in ten hours at an average speed of 8.4 miles per hour. Gurney is later to be the inventor of the theatrical ‘Limelight’.
1830
A regular steam omnibus service is established between Stratford, East London, and Paddington, West London by Walter Hancock. Using ‘Infant’, his second steam carriage.

1831
Sir Charles Dance sets up the world's first scheduled passenger service by automobiles between Gloucester and Cheltenham, using three Gurney steam carriages. It operates for just a few months.
1834
In London, Walter Hancock sets up a chain of garages to service his passenger carrying steam omnibuses en route between their destinations.
1845
Robert William Thomson of Stonehaven, Scotland patents the world’s first vulcanized rubber pneumatic tyre. It is well received on trials in London but does not reach production for fear of its cost.
 
1859
Belgian J. J. Etienne Lenoir builds the worlds first practicable internal combustion engine running on a mixture of coal gas and air and using a ‘jumping-spark’ ignition system. A company is formed in Paris to develop the engine further.
1860
Le Monde Illustre. Devotes an article to J. J. Etienne Lenoir's first gas- engined carriage.
First oil well in USA is drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania.
1862
French engineer Alphonse Beau de Rochas, patents the four-stroke cycle used in most modern internal combustion engines.
1863
Lenoir demonstrates a second carriage, powered by a 1.5hp ‘liquid hydrocarbon' engine. Several six-mile journeys are successfully completed between Paris and Vincennes.
1864
Alexander II Tsar of Russia buys one of Lenoir’s carriages making it the first export sale of a car in history.
1865
Britain’s government introduces the 'Locomotives on Highways Act' more widely known as the 'Red Flag Act'. This requires that all mechanically powered road vehicles must have three drivers, must be limited to 4 mph on the open road and 2 mph in town and, must be preceded by a man on foot waving a red flag, to warn the public.
1866
In Germany Nikolaus August Otto patents a “free-piston” atmospheric engine.
1868
First steam driven vehicle ‘Cornubia’, exported to India.
1872
Nikolaus Otto and Eugen Langen form N.A. Otto & Cie to produce the ‘free-piston’ engine.
1877
The smooth-running "Otto silent" engine is patented in Germany as employees, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach prepare it for production.
1879
An initial ‘master patent' for the automobile is filed in the United States by engineer and Patents Lawyer George B. Selden. He extends his application period for many years, by filing many amendments to delay its issue. Meanwhile he struggles to establish his own production capability.
1885
A petroleum (gasoline) powered four stroke engine is used to adapt a horse carriage by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach.
French inventor Ferdinand Forest, builds an opposed-piston engine with low tension magneto ignition and a spray carburettor.
1886
Nicolaus Otto fails to obtain a patent covering his four-stroke engine because of Alphonse Beau de Rochas’ 1862 patent in France. Nevertheless we still refer to the four-stroke principle as the Otto cycle
Carl Benz's three wheeler, makes its first successful runs. This is the first petroleum powered car to be designed from scratch, rather than adapted from a horse-drawn carriage.
1888
John Boyd Dunlop a Scottish Veterinary Surgeon living in Belfast, re-invents and re-patents the pneumatic tyre without knowledge of the previous work and patent of fellow Scott Robert William Thomson.
In the UK, Brighton inventor Magnus Volk begins production of electric carriages. His electric Railway still runs along the coast today.
Karl Benz starts to produce three wheeled, petroleum powered cars; sales are slow.
1889
Daimler sells rights for France to a new V configured twin cylinder engine to Panhard & Levassor
1890
With no thought of manufacturing cars, Panhard & Levassor licence the Peugeot ironmongery business to use the engine in automotive applications.
Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft set up by Gottleib Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany.

1891
M. Levassor decides to build cars after all, designing and building a rear engined car.
Frederick R. Simms acquires Daimler rights in the UK, with the intention of using the engines to power motor launches.
Ferdinand Forest produces the world's first four cylinder petrol engine with mechanical valve operation for use in boats and goes on to build the world's first six cylinder engine for the same purpose. The marine application ensures that his contribution to motoring history is ignored.
1892
Levassor introduces a new design of motor car which is to become the template for the vast majority of designs for many years to come. Four wheels, front mounted engine, sliding gear transmission and rear wheel drive. At first this configuration is known as Systeme Panhard.

1893
Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James Frank Duryea of Springfield, Massachussetts build their first motor buggy, Charles having an established background in the cycle trade. They are credited with being the first in America to build a practicable automobile.
Karl Benz introduces the “Viktoria”, powered by a 3hp petroleum (gasoline) engine with a top speed of 11mph. Forty-five cars are in this year.
1894
After many years of financial difficulty, Karl Benz begins 'mass production' of two models, the Velo and the Viktoria.
Henry G. Morris and Pedro Salom of Philadelphia open America's first car factory to build Electrobat electric cars.
The Apperson brothers and Elwood Haynes of Kokomo, Indiana collaborate to build an automobile.
1895
Karl Benz sells 135 motor vehicles in the year.
Sir David Salomans organises Britain's first exhibition of motor vehicles in the open air in October at Tunbridge Wells, Kent.
In November, the first indoor exhibition of cars in Britain takes place, at the Stanley Cycle Show.
Selden's master patent is finally granted in the USA, after years of revision.
First petrol engine produced by De Dion and Bouton.
The Autocar magazine founded by J. J. Henry Sturmey.
Frederick, Frank and George Lanchester build the first all-British, four-wheel, petrol driven car featuring many technical innovations. Lanchester will go on to rival Rolls Royce in their reputation for excellence, but fail to achieve long-term commercial success.
A Peugeot L'Eclair becomes the first car to run on Michelin pneumatic tyres.
1896
The British Motor Industry is born when Harry J. Lawson launches the Daimler Motor Company in Coventry.
British Parliament repeals the Red Flag Act and raises the speed limit to l4mph; Lawson organises the first Run from London to Brighton to commemorate ‘Emancipation Day’.
Duryea brings two cars over to Europe for the Emancipation Day event.
American pioneers Henry Ford, Charles Brady King, Ransome Eli Olds and Alexander Winton all complete and test their first cars.
The first car to be sold with pneumatic tyres as standard is Leon Bollee's Voiturette.
Harry J. Lawson forms the Great Horseless Carriage Company (later the Motor Manufacturing Company) to acquire the rights to all important Continental patents, in an effort to gain control of the British motor industry.
1897
Emil Jellinek, financier, international diplomat and racing enthusiast, orders the first four cylinder Daimler.
The first commercially available steam cars are manufactured by twin brothers Francis and Freelan Stanley.
Alexander Winton a bicycle manufacturer of Cleveland, Ohio incorporates the Winton Motor Carriage Co.
The Pope Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut, at the time the USA’s largest cycle manufacturer, begin their attempt to build cars in large quantities.
A British-built Daimler is driven from John O’Groats to Lands End by Henry Sturmey, at the time a journalist with ‘The Autocar’ magazine.
The Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland is founded by F.R.Simms.
Emile Levassor dies.
R.E. Olds and a group of Lansing businessmen invest $50,000 to create The Olds Motor Vehicle Company.
Leon Serpollet builds his first steam car.
1898
James Ward Packard of Warren, Ohio, becomes one of the earliest buyers of a Winton and, immediately unsatisfied with it’s reliability and performance begins literally, to ‘pick it to pieces’.
Rudolf Diesel is granted a patent for an internal combustion engine where extremely high compression of the fuel/air mixture causes self-ignition, rather than a spark.
Using a De Dion engine and axle, Louise Renault builds his first car.
Panhard-Levassor adopt the steering wheel instead of the tiller.
De Dion Bouton introduce the Voiturette.
Coventry-Daimler release their first four cylinder model.
The first Napier power unit is built.
1899
FIAT, Sunbeam, Wolseley, Albion and Isotta Fraschini begin production.
In the USA, the Olds Motor Vehicle Company also begins Production.
1900
Gottlieb Daimler dies at the age of 66. One week later Emil Jellinek secures an exclusivity agreement with Wilhelm Maybach. The cars in which he has been involved and will be marketing, will now be named after his favourite daughter, Mercedes.
The Thousand Miles Trial is organised by the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland to demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the motor vehicle to the British public. Many people will see a car for the first time in their lives.
American manufacturers produce a total of 4192 cars, each selling at an average price of $1000.00.

1901
· With an exclusive sales agreement and some technical input from Emile Jellinek , Daimler at Bad-Cannstatt introduces the new ‘Mercedes’. Jellinek will both race these cars with great success and sell them to a personally selected clientele.
· Ettore Bugatti wins the Milan Grand Prix in his Type 2 and exhibits it at the Milan International Motorcar Exhibition. He is approached by de-Dietrich of Niederbronn in the Alsace region and offered a licensing deal to design cars for them. Since he is still legally a minor, his father Carlo signs the contract.
· The Olsmobile ‘Curved Dash’ model becomes the world’s first mass-produced petroleum (gas) powered car.
· John Starley dies, without seeing a Rover car go into production.

1902
· Packard patents and introduces the “H” gearshift pattern so familiar today.
· Dr E C Lehwess sets out on the first attempt to drive around the world in a specially adapted Panhard Levassor bus named "Passe Partout" ("Anything Goes"). With no time-limit his intended route runs from London, through Europe to Asia, from where the bus will be shipped to California to cross the USA and return to England by ship across the Atlantic Ocean. He gets as far as Nizhni Novgorod in Eastern Russia, where "Passe Partout" and the attempt, have to be abandoned in deep snow.
· The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders is founded by Frederick R. Simms.

1903
· The British Parliament passes the Motor Car Act, raising the speed limit from 12 to 20mph, introducing driving licences and establishing the registration and numbering of cars.
· 17,000 vehicles are now registered in Britain.
· Henry Ford finally succeeds in raising $28,000.00 to found the Ford Motor Company and begin production and sales of his Model A runabout.
· In Detroit, the Cadillac Motor Car Company is founded by precision engineer Henry Martyn Leland.
· In London, The Vauxhall Iron Works builds its first car.
· Marcel Renault is one of 10 drivers killed in that year’s Paris-Madrid race.
· Administration of George B. Selden’s ‘master patent for the automobile’ is taken over by the newly formed Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, with the intention of pursuing numerous manufacturers for infringement, to gain compensation and future royalties.
· The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders hosts its first motor show at the Crystal Palace, in South London.
· The first completely new Benz, the front engined ‘Parsifal 12/18’, is designed by Marius Barbarou and introduced to compete with the very successful Mercedes Simplex.
· A six cylinder, four wheel drive racing car is introduced by Dutch manufacturer Spyker.
· The first six cylinder production car is introduced by Napier.
· James H. Whiting, co-founder of the Flint Wagon Works, persuades his partners to buy the Buick Motor Car Company, at that time a very small car manufacturer. Whiting becomes President and David Buick is General Manager.
· Mary Anderson is granted a patent for a handle-operated windshield wiper, originally intended to help the streetcar drivers of New York.

1904
· On January 1st, The Motor Car Act becomes law in Great Britain.
· Having built his first motor car Henry Royce meets Charles Stewart Rolls, already successful in the sales of quality cars in London and Royce agrees to manufacture a range of cars exclusively for sale by CS Rolls & Co. They are to be known by the name Rolls-Royce.
· The Sturtevant brothers of Boston, Massachusetts invent the first automatic gearbox. With two forward speeds it is dependent on rotation by the engine, of centrifugal weights which, all too often disintegrate. The unit may not be a complete success but at least it points the way for future developments.
· Ford begins to export cars to Britain.
· Having invented the modern bicycle 18 years earlier, Rover embarks on the manufacture of cars.
· De Launay Belleville is founded in Saint Denis sur Seine, central France, with Marius Barbarou as engineer.
· William Crapo Durant, Co-owner of Durant-Dort Carriage Company, the USA’s largest carriage makers, is approached by James Whiting to promote his Buick automobiles. Durant becomes Buick's General Manager.
· Having refused to pay royalties to the Association of Licensed Automotive Manufacturers for infringement of George B Selden’s master patent, Henry Ford is taken to court. Key to Ford’s defence is that Selden has never even built a car and the validity of the patent is therefore questionable. The judge orders Selden to build a car in accordance with his patent.

1905
· Herbert Austin, resigns as general manager of Wolseley to set up his own company at Longbridge, Birmingham.
· The American the market for cars is enlarged by the introduction of installment finance plans.
· The Automobile Association is set up to represent the interests of British motorists finding themselves easy targets for Police officers keen to gain promotion based on the numbers of speeding motorists caught and convicted!

1906
· The Royal Automobile Club (RAC) introduce a horsepower formula, largely based on the Cylinder bore of an engine.
· The successful commercial collaboration between Henry Royce and C S Rolls results in the formation of the Rolls-Royce company and the launch of the 40/50hp six-cylinder ‘Silver Ghost’, soon to be hailed as 'the best car in the world'.
· Ford introduces the Model N at the New York Auto Show. Selling initially at $500,
· The American car industry produces 33,500 cars.
· Former Fiat test-driver Vincenzo Lancia sets up his own company in Turin with his friend and colleague Claudio Fogolin.
· Britain exports a total of two cars per month to France while importing a total of 400 cars per month from France.
· Otto Zachow and William Besserdich of Clintonville, Wisconsin, built the first successful 4-wheel-drive car.

1907
· A year after its announcement, the price of Ford’s Model N had already risen to $600.
· King Edward VII awards the Automobile Club the Royal accolade.
· Willys-Overland is formed following the purchase of the Overland Company of Indianapilolis by John Willys.
· Over 60,000 Cars are now registered in Britain.
· A Rolls-Royce ‘Silver Ghost’ completes a 15000 miles test under supervision of the RAC, with just one enforced stop.
· Also completing a 15,000 mile test is a 45hp Hotchkiss, wearing out 46 tyres in the process.
· Otto Zachow and William Besserdich begin a company called the Four Wheel Drive Auto Co.

1908
· Ford build the first Model T. This year’s production totals 8000.
· Based on a previous, failed attempt to bring together America’s top four car manufacturers William Crapo Durant incorporates General Motors of New Jersey (GM) with a capital of $2,000. Within 12 days the company has raised $12,000,000 cash, enough to buy Buick and Oldsmobile in quick succession.
· In London The Royal Automobile Club awards Cadillac the Dewar Trophy following the dismantling, mixing and re-assembly of components from three ‘Model K’ runabouts.

1909
· The General Motors Company acquires Cadillac and Oakland.
· William Durant fails to raise the $9.5 million needed to buy Ford.
· Louis Chevrolet drives a Buick to victory in the fifth "Indy car" race at Crown Point, Indianapolis.
· Fernand Renault is dies after a long illness. Now alone at the helm, Louis Renault changes the company’s name to Les Automobiles Renault.
· While still engaged by de Deutz, Ettore Bugatti and good friend Felix Kortz build the ‘Type 10’ in the cellar of his house, probably as an expression of his imminent intention to establish his own production.
· Joseph Sankey & Sons of Bilston, near Woverhampton, specialists in steel pressings, commence production of stamped body panels for Arrol-Johnston cars.
· Joseph Sankey & Sons develop the first detachable pressed-steel artillery wheel, a considerable improvement over the wooden carriage wheels which most vehicles had used previously.
· Louis Coatalen is appointed as chief engineer at Sunbeam and starts to design cars capable of achieving records at Brooklands race track in Surrey.
· H.F.S. Morgan builds his first car, a three-wheeler with a twin cylinder 8hp engine, seating for one, tiller steering and patented ‘sliding pillar’ independent front suspension.
· Charles Franklin Kettering, having already invented, designed and developed the electric cash register, bank accounting machines and a superior ignition system for cars while working for NCR, sets up Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco). 8000 ignition systems are supplied to Cadillac in his first year of production.

1910
· De Dion-Bouton introduces the first "mass-produced" V8 engine in the world.
· Automobile production in the Untied States reaches 181,000.
· The proposal to place a tax on petrol is rejected by the British Parliament.
· Charles Stewart Rolls is killed at the age of 33, when his biplane crashes during a flying competition in Bournemouth.
· The RAC devises the horsepower ratings by which cars in Britain are taxed.
· Wireless radio is installed in a car with considerable effect although the equipment is very bulky.
· Having spent the past 9 years designing cars for deDeutz and Mathis-Hermès, Ettore Bugatti sets up his own factory at Molsheim in the Alsace region (German territory until 1919, French thereafter) and starts production of his ‘Type 11’.
· Crossley, Arrol Johnston, Argyll and Isotta Fraschini offer four wheel braking.

1911
· Burley Swiss racing driver and talented engineer Louis Chevrolet drives a Buick for Willam Durant in the first Indianapolis 500. A broken camshaft forces early retirement. Louis’s brothers, Arthur and Gaston, are also keen racing drivers.
· Having been ousted from General Motors William Durrant hires Louis Chevrolet as a consultant to develop a high quality car and forms the Chevrolet Motor Company.
· Ford opens its first factory outside the USA at Trafford Park, Manchester, UK. With an annual output of 3000 Model Ts, Ford soon becomes Britain's biggest car maker.
· Cadillac 20/30hp model comes with ignition, electric lighting and electric self-starting developed by Charles F. Kettering’s Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco).
· The Selden Patent Case finally ends in victory for Henry Ford when the car built to Selden’s patent is a technical failure. The patent is found to be 'valid but not infringed' releasing Americas car manufacturers to sell their products without further interference from Selden.

1912
· Prominent figure S. F. Edge resigns from the Napier company following a dispute. He agrees to stay out of the motor industry for 7 years in exchange for a £160,000.00 pay-off. Instead he turns to pig farming, cattle breeding and film production, all with considerable success.
· Delco electric self-starters and electric lighting come as standard on all Cadillac models.
· The first Chevrolet, the big, powerful and very expensive Classic Six, reaches production but its price places it well out of reach of the mass market which Durant needs to attract to build his new business.
· Sunbeam causes a sensation by simultaneously entering two team of 3 litre cars in French races running at the same time. They come in 1st, 2nd and 3rd in Coupe de l'Auto for touring cars at Dieppe and 3rd, 4th, and 5th in the French Grand Prix against cars with engines of vastly greater cubic capacity. As a result, the virtually identical touring models sell very well.
· Brothers W O and H M Bentley buy the London agency for French DFP cars from their employers and call their new business Bentley and Bentley.

1913
· Packard achieves a significant step in the development of the differential by introducing the spiral-bevel ring and pinion set. This cuts noise levels dramatically.
· Henry Ford trials moving conveyor belt techniques for magneto production.
· Ford’s sales rise to 182,809 vehicles.
· The Royal Automobile Club awards the Dewar Trophy to Cadillac for a second time, in recognition of the introduction of the electric self-starter and electric lighting.
· William Morris introduces his I0hp Morris Oxford light car.
· Congress is lobbied by the Lincoln Highway Association who want a transcontinental highway to be constructed across America.
· Mechanical direction indicators begin to appear on some models.
· Fiat builds 3251cars.
· Renault build 9338 cars.
· Louis Chevrolet falls out with William Durant, wanting his name to be associated with prestigious cars and resigns. By selling his stock Chevrolet has thrown away the opportunity to become a multi millionaire. Durant continues to grow Chevrolet sales by moving the range downmarket.
· W O Bentley develops the aluminium-alloy piston for use in automotive engines and achieves a class record at Brooklands in an alloy-pistoned DFP.

1914
· De Dion-Bouton’s V8 engine is now available in 3.5 litre, 4.6 litre and 7.8 litre capacities.
· Ford introduces conveyor assembly line techniques to chassis production reducing unit production times from 12½ to 1½ hours.
· Ford raises the daily pay of its production workers to an industry record of $5.
· Ettore Bugatti designs and manufactures the world’s first series-produced 16-valve 4 cylinder engine.
· British buyers can now choose between 200 makes of car.
· The German Army’s advance on Paris is repulsed by troops ferried to the front line in Renault taxis.
· W O Bentley is commissioned into the navy to develop aero-engines for the Royal Naval Air Service. The BR1 and BR2 radial engines, built at the Humber factory, prove extremely effective and Bentley passes his knowledge of alloy piston technology on to Ernest Hives who is also developing aero-engines at Rolls-Royce.
· Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford set up a small sports-car manufacturing business in West London. Bamford’s early departure leaves Martin with the need for a new name. Success achieved at the Aston-Clinton Hill Climb course in the prototype car provides the ideal name. Aston-Martin is born!

1915
· British Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald McKenna introduces a ‘temporary’ 33.33 % levy on luxury imports to contribute to the cost of the war. Commercial vehicles are excluded, as they are needed for the war effort. This levy becomes known as the "McKenna Duties".
· Catillac introduces the first successful V8 engine in the United States.
· Inspired by Sunbeam aero-engine designs, Packard introduce the Vl2 Twin Six.
· Banker Nicola Romeo takes over Anonima Lombardo Fabbrica Automobili of Milan to create Alfa Romeo.
· Ford give a $50.00 refund to every Model T customer in recognition of annual sales exceeding their target.
· The British Admiralty Landships Committee, charged with development of an armoured fighting vehicle capable of crossing trenches and barbed wire to attack an enemy, appoint a Lincoln agricultural machinery manufacturers William Foster & Co. Ltd, to design and develop it. For the sake of secrecy the factory workers are told to refer to the project as ‘a water carrier for Mesopotamia’. Their nick-name for the project is still with us today - ‘The tank’.

1916
· Windscreen wipers powered by vacuum from the engine’s inlet manifold begin to replace the manual version originally patented by Mary Anderson in 1903. Because inlet manifold vacuum varies with engine speed so does wiper speed.
· C F Kettering’s Delco is sold to United Motors Corporation for $9,000,000.00.

1917
· Herbert Austin receives a knighthood.
· Having founded Cadillac and stayed at the helm since the 1909 sale to General Motors, Henry Martyn Leland resigns and leaves with his son Wilfred C Leland, to found the Lincoln Motor Company and build Liberty aero-engines for use in WW1 fighter planes.
· Engineer William Rootes is demobilised from the British Armed to set up a new plant at Maidstone, Kent to repair aeroplane engines instead of scrapping them. The war ends before the plant is fully operational.

1918
· Emil Jellinek dies.
· Car registrations in America exceed five million for the first time.
· The Thomas B Jeffery Company is bought by Charles Nash and renamed Nash Motors.
· United Motors Corporation is acquired by General Motors. As a result, C F Kettering is invited to organise and direct General Motors Research Corporation and insists that its headquarters are established in Dayton.

1919
· Andre Citroen, having decided the future lies in simple reliable cars for the mass market, begins production of his Model A.
· Henry Ford pays out $l00 million to buy-out all the other stockholders in the Ford Motor Company.
· S. F. Edge returns to the British motor industry by taking over AC cars.
· The first straight eight production engine is introduced by Isotta Fraschini.
· Walter P. Chrysler resigns his position as vice president of General Motors.
· New aero influenced post war models introduced by Hispano Suiza, Guy, Enfield Allday.
· WO Bentley, awarded an £8,000 gratuity for his wartime work on the design of aero-engines, uses it to establish Bentley Motors Ltd and develop his first sports-car.
· Charles F Kettering’s Dayton Metal Products Co. is absorbed into General Motors, forming the core of GM's new research division.
· William and Reginal Rootes re-establish the family car sales business, Rootes Ltd. in Maidstone Kent.
· Enzo Ferrari finishes ninth at the Targa Florio bringing him to the notice of Alfa Romeo.

1920
· Half of all the motor vehicles in the world are Model T Fords.
· The American car industry is hit hard by a sudden post-war sales slump - Most companies struggle, many go out of business and some are absorbed into the larger corporate conglomerates.
· The merger of Sunbeam and Talbot-Darracq creates the STD group. The new organisation will fail to rationalise development programmes and share components, missing out on financial opportunities, building cars which compete with each other for market share.
· William Durant is ousted from his position at the head of General Motors for a second and final time, when DuPont/Morgan banking interests gain a controlling interest. Alfred P. Sloan is placed in charge of the group's affairs.
· Duesenberg introduce the first production car with a straight eight engine and four-wheel hydraulic brakes.
· Work starts on Britain's first bypass roads, The Great West Road from Chiswick, West London and The Purley Way near Croydon.
· 350 French companies manufacture cars.
· Louis Chevrolet’s Monroe racer wins the Indianapolis 500 with his brother Gaston at the wheel.
· Gaston Chevrolet is killed in a racing accident on a boardwalk raceway in Beverly Hills, California.
· C F Kettering, inventor and outstanding engineer and head of General Motors Research Corporation becomes a vice-president and GM board member.
· Driving a modified Alfa Romeo production car in the Targa Florio, Enzo Ferrari finishes in second place.

1921
· Ferodo introduces a dry-plate clutch using asbestos friction materials that do not burn out every few hundred miles.
· The Motor Car Act taxes cars in Britain at £I per RAC horsepower. Because of the RAC formula this favours small-bore, long stroke engines used by British manufacturers. Sales of cheaper American imports which tend to use large-bore, short stroke engines are crippled. A Morris Cowley, rated at 11.9hp costs just £12 to tax, whereas a Model T is rated at 22.5hp and costs £23 per year. One variation is that pre 1914 cars pay only half the horsepower. One oddity is a complete exemption for cars used solely for taking servants to church or voters to the polling station!
· Bentley Motors Ltd start production of the new Bentley 3 litre sports car at a factory in Cricklewood, London and the three racing Bentleys entered in the Tourist Trophy Race win the team prize.
· Lincoln introduce theirV8.
· To counteract a drop in sales Morris cuts prices by up to £I00. The ploy works effectively, with sales increasing from 1932 cars in 1920 to 3077 cars this year.
· William Durant establishes Durant Motors, having raised $7 million in loans.
· Tommy Milton drives a straight-eight Frontenac, designed and built by Louis Chevrolet, to victory at Indianapolis. Two different Louis Chevrolet-developed machines have now won at Indianapolis in consecutive years.

1922
· Ford buys financially troubled Lincoln.
· In Britain Herbert Austin introduces the Seven.
· Clyno begin car production in Wolverhampton.
· Marconi begin experiments with wireless receivers in Daimler cars.
· Ford produce over one million Model Ts.
· Inspired by the strength of a ship’s hull in a storm Vincenzo Lancia devises the first car to feature a sheet metal unitary body structure. The Lancia Lambda also featured a V4 engine with twin overhead camshafts, independent front suspension and brakes on all four wheels.
· Trico (USA) introduce electric windscreen wipers as a more speed-consistent alternative to vacuum-driven wipers.
· Leslie Hounsfield's Trojan Ltd of Croydon Licence production of his low-cost 2 stroke, four cylinder car to Leyland Motors.
· Charles F. Kettering, (previously responsible for the electric starter) and his assistant T. H. Midgley develop tetraethyl leaded petrol to improve the quality of fuels available in the USA. This alone encourages the development of more powerful and efficient high-compression engines.
· 21 year old Motor Cycle enthusiast William Lyons meets motorcycle sidecar maker William Walmsley in Blackpool, England. Together they set up the Swallow Sidecar Company.

1923
· De Dion-Bouton cease production of their V8 engine range.
· Cecil Kimber builds his first MG, a Morris Cowley with flattened springs, a sports body and a rebuilt engine.
· Coventry bicycle manufacturer Triumph, builds their first car, the 10/20hp.
· Over 2,000,000 Model Ts leave Ford’s production lines.
· Sunbeams came 1st, 2nd and 4th in the French Grand Prix.
· While racing at the Circuit of Sivocci at Ravenna Enzo Ferrari is approached by Count Enrico and Countess Paolina Baracca, parents of deceased national hero Francesco Baracca. They give Ferrari Francesco’s squadron badge, a prancing horse on a yellow shield.

1924
· Former General Motors Vice President, Walter P Chrysler, begins production of his own cars.
· Car production times are cut dramatically when DuPont develop quick-drying enamels.
· Napier give up the production of cars and concentrate on aero-engines.
· The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are removed.
· Sunbeam win the Spanish Grand Prix. No other British car will win a Grand Prix in the first half of the 20th century. Twin cam OHV engines become standard on the 3 litre Super Sports models.
· Malcolm Campbell achieves an official Land Speed Record d 146mph in an 18 litre 12 cyl Sunbeam developing 350hp.
· A Bentley Sport, driven by Sammy Davis and John Benjafield, wins the Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race for the first time.

1925
· The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are reinstated and extended to include commercial vehicles.
· Morris production of ‘Bullnose’ Oxfords and Cowleys hits 54,131.
· Vauxhall Motors at Luton becomes a part of General Motors.
· The 250,000th Ford Model T rolls out of Ford’s British factory and begins a celebratory tour.
· Rolls Royce introduce the Phantom 1, their first new model since the introduction of the 1906 Silver Ghost.
· The Triumph 13/30 becomes Britain’s first family car with hydraulic braking on all four wheels.
· Malcolm Campbell raises the official Land Speed Record to 150mph, again in a Sunbeam car.
· Sunbeam enters their new 3 litre Super Sports car for the Grand Prix d'Endurance (24 hours) at Le Mans. It is the only British car to finish, winning 2nd place overall and coming first in the 3 litre class. The parent company (The STD Group) takes out a large loan.
· General Motors Research Corporation and its boss C F Kettering, move to Detroit.

1926
· Cadillac introduce shatter-resistant glass.
· Long retired from racing, Louis Chevrolet drives the official pace car for his last laps of Indianapolis Speedway. As a driver he has achieved 10 career Indy car wins and won over 27 major events, making him the most successful of the three racing Chevrolet brothers.
· Following a trip to America William Morris is convinced that the future of the car revolves around all-steel construction and works with Edward G Budd to set up the Pressed Steel Company.
· In Germany, Daimler Benz AG is formed by the long-planned (since 1911) merger between Benz and Daimler companies.
· A 7136cc V12 sleeve valve engine is the main feature of the Coventry Daimler Company’s new Double Six model.
· In London, the General Strike and resultant marches bring traffic to a halt.
· London's motorists see electric traffic lights for the first time.
· Production of 300 cars a week makes Clyno of Wolverhampton Britain’s third largest car manufacturer.
· Packard further refines the differential by introducing hypoid gears, virtually eliminating rear axle whine.
· Major Henry Segrave sets a new Land Speed Record of 152mph in a 4 litre 12 cyl Sunbeam.
· The Swallow Sidecar Company starts to build special bodies for the Austin Seven and changes its name to the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company. Beyond the Austin seven it also offers coach-built bodies on chassis by Morris, Fiat, Standard, Swift and others.
· William and Reginald Rootes move their business from Kent to offices and showrooms at Devonshire House, Picadilly, in the heart of London's West End. Within a matter of months they have built a network of branches across the UK, in the process, becoming Europe’s largest motor distributing company.

1927
· Ford’s Model T comes to the end of the road after 19 years and fifteen million vehicles.
· The first British all-steel body is produced by the Pressed Steel Company for the Morris Isis Six, a medium sized saloon.
· William Morris acquires the failed Wolseley company.
· Chevrolet becomes the top selling manufacturer in America as Ford reorganizes its production facilities for the Model A.
· Chromium plating is pioneered by Studebaker and Oldsmobile.
· Stanley brings production of its steam cars to an end.
· Major Henry Segrave, sets a new World Land Speed Record of over 200mph driving a twin-engined 1000 hp Sunbeam.

1928
· By now Britain’s largest car distributors, William and Reginald Rootes begin to acquire manufacturers, starting with Humber, Hillman and Commer.
· Dodge is acquired by Chrysler for $I75,000,000.
· In the face of fierce price competition from William Moris, Clyno introduce a £I00 8hp model and ‘hits the rocks’.
· Cadillac introduces the synchromesh gearbox.
· Britain's first front wheel drive production car is introduced by Alvis.
· A Bentley wins the Le Mans 24 Hours driven by Woolf Barnato and Bernard Rubin.
· As a result of slumping sales many UK companies are become vulnerable
· The Rootes brothers acquire a substantial interest in The Hillman Car Company and then take over Humber Ltd and it’s commercial vehicle brand, Commer.

1929
· Karl Benz dies, aged 85.
· David Dunbar Buick dies.
· US car production reaches 5,337,087, a record that will stand until the I950s.
· 26.5 million cars are now registered in the USA.
· Clyno ceases trading and its assets liquidated.
· Armstrong Siddeley offer a Wilson pre-selector gearbox as an option.
· Sir Dennistoun Burney, the man behind the development of R100 airship, applies his aerodynamic expertise to car design and starts to make his Burney ‘Streamlines’ at his factory in Maidenhead. Each car features teardrop styling, space-frame construction, rear engine, all-round independent suspension and hydraulic brakes.
· Bentley win the Le Mans 24 Hours for the second year in succession with a Speed Six driven by Woolf Barnato and Henry Birkin.
· While continuing to work for Alfa Romeo, Enzo Ferrari forms the Scuderia Ferrari, a club/team for gentlemen-racers with the aim of organizing racing for members.

1930
· Daimler fit fluid flywheels in conjunction with pre-selector gearboxes to produce semi automatic transmission.
· Cadillac introduces a 7.4 litre VI6.
· Economic depression causes a fall in car sales.
· Henry Royce receives a knighthood.
· In the bar of the Old Ship Hotel in Brighton following the annual ‘London to Brighton Run’, three participants decide to form the Veteran Car Club to help its members preserve the veteran and Edwardian cars which form a record motoring’s early history.
· The 20mph speed limit, which has been ignored by motorists and police alike for many years, is abolished by the British Parliament.
· In Britain, third party insurance becomes compulsory.
· Larger Morris cars come with hydraulic brakes.
· Walter Wilson introduces the Wilson Preselector gearbox based on a planetary manual transmission system like that used in the Ford Model T.
Bentley wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for the fourth year in succession with a Speed Six driven by Woolf Barnato and Glen Kidston.

1931
· The Vauxhall Cadet 2 litre six, is the first car in Europe to feature a synchromesh gearbox.
· Bentley Motors goes into liquidation. Napier are interested in buying, but are outbid by Rolls Royce who form Bentley Motors (1931) Limited.
· Daimler acquire Lanchester Britain’s oldest motor manufacturer.
· The Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company introduces its first cars, the SS1 and SS2. The larger SS1 is based on a modified Standard chassis and Standard six-cylinder engine. The smaller SS2 has a four-cylinder engine.
· As the first fruit of the Rootes Group acquisition, Hillman introduces the Wizard with a choice of either 2.1 or 2.8 litre engines. It is not a great sales success.

1932
· After years of struggling to survive De Dion-Bouton goes out of business.
· Oldsmobile and Packard models feature automatic chokes.
· Ford of Britain moves it’s plant and machinery from Trafford Park, Manchester to its new factory at Dagenham on the Eastern outskirts of London over one weekend without losing any production.
· Ford design their first car for the European market, the 8hp model Y, in Dearborn.
· Ford facelift the Model A and offer it with a mass-produced V8 engine. Sales in the first year exceed 300,000.
· Hillman introduces the Minx, small family saloon, which proves to be extremely popular.

1933
· William Lyons Changes the name of the Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company to SS Cars Limited, taking on the role of managing director.
· Ford looses its grip on the American market, dropping to third place behind General Motors and the Chrysler Corporation.

1934
· REO introduce the Reo Self-Shifter, actually two transmissions connected in series. The first shifts automatically due to the engagement of a multi-disc centrifugal clutch mechanism. The second transmission is shifted manually to engage a lower gear.
· Under both the Chrysler and DeSoto brands Chrysler introduces the revolutionary ‘Airflow’ ‘streamline’ family saloons with aerodynamic unitary sheet-steel body construction and an automatic overdrive.
· In Britain a 30mph limit is imposed in built-up areas by Transport Minister Leslie Hore Belisha, pedestrian (Zebra) crossings are introduced, illuminated by a flashing orange (Belisha) beacon and new drivers are required to pass a test.
· Morris Motors’ first conveyor assembly line is installed at Cowley and Sir William Morris becomes Baron Nuffield.
· General Motors put the successful racecar designer and financial failure, Louis Chevrolet on their payroll in recognition of their use of his name.
· Ferdinand Porshe approaches the German Reich government with proposals for a car for the German masses – a Volkswagen. Massive government investment follows.
· Construction of the German Autobahn system commences, conceived by Adolph Hitler as a productive way of harnessing the unemployed masses.
· British cars are now available with Metallic finishes.
· Andre Citroen’s ambition gets the better of him as development of the ‘traction avant’ becomes so expensive that the company is virtually bankrupted. Michelin step in to prop up the business and Citroen looses control.
· At SS Cars Limited, William Lyons boosts his company’s technical capabilities with the arrival of renowned engine specialist Harry Weslake. Soon after his arrival overhead valve cylinder heads become available.

1935
· The depression of the 1930s means STD Motors are unable to sustain repayments of the large loan taken out in 1925 and are forced into receivership. The Rootes brothers outbid the smaller SS Cars Limited and the proud Sunbeam and Talbot names are destined to become up-market badge-engineered versions of Hillmans.
· Ford of Britain introduces a cut price version of the 8hp Model Y saloon to sell at £I00.00.
· There are now 35 million motor vehicles on the world’s roads according to an international census.
· Triumph offer a screen wash system.
· William Heynes joins SS Cars Ltd as chief engineer and the SS Jaguar is announced.

1936
· Morgan, specialists in economical three-wheelers since 1909 introduce their first four wheeler, thanks to changes in tax and market readiness for ‘a fourth wheel’.
· Fiat introduce the budget-priced 500A, featuring an aerodynamic shape, a ‘570cc engine and a full length sunroof. Its appearance earns it the nick-name ‘Topolino’ (Mickey Mouse) while a 55mph top speed and 55mpg economy makes it very popular, particularly in its home country.
· Ferdinand Porsche begins development and construction of prototype ‘Volkswagens’ to demonstrate his concept to Adolf Hitler. The declared intention is that they will sell for £50.00 on a special finance plan.
· At SS Cars Limited, William Lyons buys out William Walmsley and anounces the SS 100 and SS Jaguar models.
· There are still 45 British car manufacturers.
· Fifty-four percent of families in the United States now own a car.

1937
· The first London Motor Exhibition is held at Earls Court, rather than Olympia, where it has been since 1905.
· Buick and Oldsmobile introduce the Automatic Safety Transmission, using a conventional clutch for engaging forward or reverse and shifting automatically once underway.
· 800 miles of autobahn have been built in Germany at a cost of £56,000 a mile.
· Chrysler perfects the fluid coupling, a major advance towards the fully automatic gearbox, but does nothing with it for the moment.

1938
· The Volkswagen goes into production in Nazi Germany.
· The British government raises the petrol tax from 8d to 9d per gallon and horsepower tax to £l.25d per hp.
· The first small British saloon to feature independent front suspension is the Standard Flying Eight.
· Riley is taken over by The Nuffield Group.
· Morris launches the Series E 8hp Saloon at £128, the cheapest car in Britain.
· As another War begins to look inevitable British car manufacturers are requested to set up Shadow Factories next to small-scale specialists who’s products, in much larger quantities, would be crucial to any war effort.
· GM offer the Hydra-Matic hydraulically operated gearbox.
· SS Cars Ltd, like many other British manufacturers turns production over to the war effort.

1939
· Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany on September 3rd.
· The British Government introduces petrol rationing. Petrol is exchanged for coupons allowing each motorist about 200 miles of motoring per month.
· There are now two million cars on Britain's roads.
· The customized Lincoln Continental and the lower priced Mercury are introduced by Ford.
· Triumph has to cease trading and is put into receivership.

1940
· Car production in Britain is put on hold as most factories go over to munitions production.
· The German Luftwaffe destroys the centre of Coventry.
· Oldsmobile and Cadillac offer the first fully automatic transmission.
· Enzo Ferrari leaves Alfa Romeo to establish Auto-Avio Costruzioni Ferrari.
· In Japan, Toyo Kogyo produces its first passenger car.

1941
· Lord Austin dies aged 74
· Louis Chevrolet dies aged 63. He is buried at Indianapolis, scene of his greatest racing victories.
· Packard are the first car manufacturer to offer air conditioning.
· Chrysler introduces the Fluid Drive transmission, a manual transmission with a fluid coupling instead of a clutch.

1943
· American passenger car production falls to just 139 vehicles as war production requirements take over.

1944
· Volvo focus on occupant safety with the introduction of a safety cage.
· Louis Renault is arrested and imprisoned for collaborating with the Germans. He dies at Fresnes prison in ‘suspicious circumstances’.
· Enzo Ferrari’s Maranello workshops are bombed and destroyed.

1945
· 2nd World War in Europe ends with Germany’s unconditional surrender to the allies on May 7th.
· In receivership since 1939, Triumph is acquired by Standard.
· Petrol rationing in Britain continues.
· Henry Ford resigns as president of The Ford Motor Company, handing over to his grandson, Henry Ford 11.
· French President Charles de Gaulle nationalizes Renault and the company's name is changed to Regié Nationale des Usines Renault.
· British manufacturers are compelled by
· The newly elected Socialist government ‘encourages’ manufacturers to export half their output. To counteract the consequential development of an illicit black-market car buyers are required to sign a covenant preventing the sale of new cars for one year.

1946
· Newly designed post-war models are launched by British car makers Triumph, Armstrong-Siddeley, Jowett and Bentley as the British Motor Industry celebrates its fiftieth birthday.
· Petrol ration for British motorists is increased by 50 per cent.
· Ford of Britain produce their millionth car, an 8hp Anglia.
· Michelin patent the Radial-ply tyre.
· In light of negative wartime connotations William Lyons changes the name of SS Cars Ltd. to Jaguar Cars Ltd and begins to focus on export markets.
· Enzo Ferrari rebuilds his bombed workshops and begins work on the development and production of the Ferrari 125 Sport. The first Ferrari hits the road!

1947
· Packard offers power seats and windows across their range.
· Ettore Bugatti dies in Paris aged 66.
· The American car industry celebrates its Golden Jubilee.
· Henry Ford dies at the age of 84.
· BMW engine and car designs are ‘acquired’ by Bristol and Frazer-Nash as ‘war reparations’.
· David Brown, already successful in the British engineering industry, sees an advertisement in The Times offering ‘A high-class motor business, established 25 years’ and pays £20.000 to buy Aston Martin. He has already purchased Lagonda, having owned a Lgonda Rapide himself in the past.
· A new name, Standard-Vanguard, is introduced to the British public
· Instead of taxing cars based on the 1906 RAC horsepower formula a flat- rate system is introduced.
· Enzo Ferrari’s 125 Sport wins its first race. The first of many Ferrari victories.

1948
· The first motor show since the end of the war takes place at Earls Court.
· Morris introduce the Minor family car, designed by Alec Issigonis.
· Jaguar Cars Ltd. announces the XK120 sports car featuring low, streamlined body, an outstanding twin overhead cam 6 cylinder engine and a top speed of 120mph. Alongside it the elegant MK 5 saloon (sedan) replaces the pre-war model known by enthusiasts, though not the company, as the MK 4.
· Citoen introduce the 2CV, reputedly designed to accommodate gentlemen still wearing their hats and to drive across a ploughed field without breaking a cargo of eggs!
· The American motor industry builds its 100,000,000th car.
· Ferdinand Porsche launches the Porsche marque by introducing the 356/2 as a no-frills sports car re-working of his war-time Volkswagen project.
· Developed along the well proven lines of the Willys Jeep, Rover introduce the 4 wheel drive Land Rover.
· Buick offer the Dynaflow fully automatic gearbox. This is essentially the automatic gearbox as we know it today,

1949
· Michelin ‘X’ radial-ply tyres go on sale for the first time.

1950
· British government ends petrol rationing but doubles fuel tax.
· The new car covenant, introduced to prevent a black market in new cars is extended from one to two years ownership.
· The UK’s former double purchase tax on luxury cars is halved.
· Ford wins back its second place in the US sales league from Chrysler.
· Automatic transmission becomes available on lower priced Chevrolet models.
· Goodyear offers self-repairing tyres (tires).
· 60% of American families now own a car.
· 6,657,000 cars are sold in the USA.
· Rover demonstrates the JET 1 the world's first gas turbine powered car.
· Ford engineer Earle S MacPherson designs the MacPherson Strut, a combination of spring, shock absorber and stub-axle which simplifies design and production and reduces costs.
· Ford UK introduces Consul and Zephyr models.
· In the USA, automatic gearboxes become more readily available - Chevrolet offer the Powerglide, Ford the Fordomatic and Merc-O-Matic.
· Nash feature seatbelts in the Rambler. The promoted benefits are that they ‘overcome the problems caused when sleeping passengers fall out of their seats’!

1951
· Porsche enters a 356 SL in the Le Mans 24-Hours and wins the 1100cc class.
· Ferdinand Porsche dies aged 75.
· Lotus Engineering Co founded by aeronautical engineer and competitive sports car driver Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman.
· 100mph performance becomes available at realistic prices as Triumph announces the TR and the Healey introduces their 100/4 sports cars.
· Chrysler offer power steering and the M-6 Torque-Converter Automatic. They also spark a horsepower race with the 180 horsepower, 331 cubic-inch Firepower Hemi V-8 engine.
· Kaiser introduces new safety features, a pop-out windshield and a padded dashboard top.
· Jaguar introduces the prototype C-Type race-car, aimed at winning Le Mans.

1952
· In the USA, sales of cars with automatic transmissions exceed 2 million.
· Crosley ceases production.
· Rival manufacturers Nuffield organisation (Morris) and Austin comes to an end with their amalgamation into the British Motor Corporation (BMC) with Lord Nuffield in the driving seat.
· Mercedes shows the spectacular 300SL 'gull wing' sports coupe.
· Packard offer power brakes.
· The newly developed disk braking system, now available from Dunlop, is fitted to Jaguar’s C Types, enabling them to achieve 1st, 2nd and 4th places at Le Mans.

1953
· As wartime austerity begins to fade in the United Kingdom, the availability of higher octane fuels allows higher compression ratios and improvements in engine performance.
· Singer announces the SMX Roadster, Britain’s first plastic-bodied production car. Only 12 are made before the project is abandoned.
· Britain’s New Car Covenant Purchase Scheme, originally introduced to prevent new cars being sold-on at a premium, is abolished.
· General Motors Launch the Corvette, a radical glass-fibre-bodied roadster concept car featuring a wrap-around windshield and powered by a venerable straight six engine. Production is limited.
· Porsche introduces the 550 ‘Spyder’ race-car with a triangulated tubular steel chassis, aluminium bodywork and a VW-based 4 cylinder ‘boxer’ engins. 550 Spyders dominate the 1500cc class at Le Mans and then the same class in the Pan Americana, Mexican road race.

1954
· The 50 millionth General Motors car rolls off the production line.
· All Buick, Oldsmobile and Cadillac models feature wrap-around Panoramic windshields.
· Ford introduces overhead valves on its V8 engines in Ford and Mercury models.
· Nash merges with Hudson to form the American Motors Corporation.
· Studebaker merges with Packard.
· GM reveals the 370 horsepower turbine-powered Firebird I concept car.
· The two seat Ford Thunderbird roadster is announced.
· Lanchester offer the Sprite with automatic transmission, still a rarity in Europe.
· Having re-established production of the ‘Beetle’ with much help from British Army personnel, Volkswagen start to focus on generating export sales.
· Tubeless tyres (tires) are now offered on all new American cars.
· Jaguar Cars replace the XK120 with the XK 140, featuring a 190 horsepower engine, mechanical refinements and chrome trim. The new Jaguar D Type race-car is introduced at Le Mans without success.

1955
· The revolutionary Citroen DS19 is introduced with a futuristic aerodynamic body, self-levelling hydropneumatic suspension, power steering and braking and automatic jacks.
· McDonald’s opens its first drive-thru hamburger bar.
· Chrysler launches ‘Imperial’ as a separates brand.
· Kaiser goes out of business.
· American car sales hit a record 7,915,000. Jaguar launch the MK 1 Family sports saloon (sedan) to broaden their market appeal. They also win at Le Mans with a much improved D-type.

1956
· Fuel supplies are seriously limited by the Suez crisis, resulting in rationing in Britain and other European countries and an upsurge of interest in economical micro-cars for personal transportation.
· U.S. car stylists begin to adopt tail fins and rocket-shaped tail lamps as science fiction and space rockets enter the American consciousness.
· The Ford Foundation offers over ten million Ford Motor Company shares for sale to the public.
· BMC commissions Pininfarina to styles its new models.
· Lanchester comes to the end of the road as Daimler discontinues production.
· Ford of America offers seat belts to a disinterested public.
· The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are finally abolished.
· Jaguar D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a second successive year.
· The Porsche 550A Spyder, a modified version of its predecessor, wins the Targa Florio road race on its debut, beating much more powerful competitors. It goes on to ‘wipe the floor’ at virtually every appearance.

1957
· The Lotus Elite (Type 14) is announced, featuring a revolutionary glassfibre monocoque construction.
· Ford Motor Company introduces the Continental Mark II, priced at almost $10,000.
· The three millionth Mercury comes off Ford’s production line.
· Packard and Chrysler offer pushbutton automatic transmissions.
· Packard offers power door locks.
· Chrysler offers an in-car record player.
· 80% of all new cars sold in America have a V-8 engine.
· The American Congress approves construction of the 41,000 mile Interstate highway system.
· The Nash and Hudson marques are discontinued by parent company AMC.
· A new Fiat 500 is introduced featuring a rear-mounted vertical twin-cylinder air cooled engine.
· Chrysler produce their ten millionth Plymouth.
· The new Ford Skyliner features a retractable hardtop, a ‘first’ for a production car.
· Ford introduces the Ranchero pickup.
· Chevrolet, Pontiac and Rambler adopt fuel injection.
· 66% of all cars purchased in the USA are bought on extended finance.
· Jaguar introduce the XK 150 and a D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a third successive year.

1958
· Work starts on the Ml ‘London to Birmingham’ Motorway, the UK’s first.
· Roads around London are governed by a new 40mph speed limit.
· To celebrate the fiftieth birthday of the Model T, Ford re-assembles a 1909 example.
· Ford produce their fifty millionth car.
· The revolutionary glassfibre Lotus Elite (Type 14) enters production. With all-round independent suspension and a 1,216 cc overhead cam Coventry Climax engine it has spectacular handling and is capable of 118mph! In spite of its success as a racecar Lotus will loose money on every one built.
· With controversial styling and sophisticated features, the Ford Edsel is launched to a luke-warm reception.
· Chrysler builds its twenty five millionth vehicle.
· Packard production comes to an end.
· The Austin-Healy 'Frogeye' Sprite is introduced.
· The new chairman of BMC is Sir Leonard Lord.
· A record one million cars are produced in Britain.
· Toyotas and Datsuns are imported to the United States for the first time.
· The Ford Thunderbird becomes a four-seater 'personal luxury’ car.
· American car sales drop by 31% due to an economic recession.
· C F Kettering, inventor of the electric starter and Ethyl-Leaded Gasoline dies aged 82.
· Porsche introduce the "RSK" Spyder, or Type 718 which continues to win class and outright honours in the hands of such drivers as Dan Gurney, Wolfgang von Trips and Jo Bonnier.
· A fascination with the impending space-age inspires Cadillac to begin giving its new models fins and rocket-shaped taillights.

1959
· UK Government reduces Purchase Tax on new cars from 60 to 50 per cent.
· Triumph introduce the Michelotti styled Herald, featuring all round independent suspension.
· Lea Francis go out of business.
· NSU announce that they will build Wankel rotary engined cars.
· Dutch manufacturer DAF begins car production, using the Variomatic belt-drive automatic transmission.
· The M1, Britain’s first motorway is opened by The Right Honourable Ernest Marples, minister of Transport.
· British Motor Corporation introduces the Morris Mini-Minor and Austin Se7en variants, built on separate production lines at Cowley, Oxford and Longbridge, Birmingam to a revolutionary compact design by Alec Issigonis. Whichever brand of ‘Mini’, it features a rubber-cone suspension system and a gearbox built into the engine, beneath the crankshaft. Perhaps the Mini’s most significant contribution to the packaging efficiency of modern front-wheel-drive cars is its transversely mounted engine.
· Jaguar launches the MK II family sports saloon (sedan) to great acclaim.
· The Ford Anglia arrives. It is a small family car with conventional mechanical layout. Its unusual feature is a reverse-slope rear window, which ensures good headroom far rear-seat passengers.
· Studebaker introduces the Lark, a compact car intended to compete with European imports.
· An Aston-Martin DBR 1, driven by Caroll Shelby and Roy Salvadori wins the Le Mans 24 hours.

1960
· Eighty percent of United Stated families own at least one car.
· The UK Daimler Company becomes part of Jaguar Cars.
· The Japanese car industry manufactures 200,000 cars.
· The Ford Anglia l05E is introduced with a four speed gearbox and a raked back rear window.
· OPEC (The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) is formed to give the oil producing countries more power over crude oil prices.
· The millionth Morris Minor leaves the production line, one of a series of 350 painted in a celebratory shade of lilac with white leather upholstery.
· Jaguar Cars Limited buys Daimler and begins to offer ‘badge engineered’ Jaguars.

1961
· The Cortina Mk I is introduced by Ford of Britain.
· BMC introduce the Morris I IOO featuring a revolutionary ‘Hydrolastic’ suspension system.
· The ‘MOT’ test is introduced by Ernest Marples, requiring that all cars over 10 years old are subjected to an annual test.
· BMC chief, Sir Leonard Lord becomes Lord Lambury.
· Commercial vehicle producers Leyland Motors acquire Standard Triumph and AEC.
· Porsche introduce the W-RS Spyder race-car with its well-proven flat four power unit.

1962
· Chevrolet introduce the Nova, a compact car with plain styling and 4 or 6 cylinder engines, designed to offer economical family motoring.
· Ford UK introduces the Consul Cortina, an attractive medium-sized family saloon, powered by an 1198cc OHV engine. (The ‘Consul’ is dropped very quickly). Though launched as a two-door, a four-door body becomes available within a few months.
· The W-RS Spyder, now powered by a 2.0-litre flat-eight engine, continues to build Porsche’s racing prowess by winning everything in sight.

1963
· The Leyland Motor Corporation formed under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Spurrier.
· Ford’s Cortina DeLuxe is now available with a 1498cc engine and also as high-performance Lotus model featuring a twin-cam engine and major suspension modifications.
· Lord Nuffield dies aged 86.
· The Hillman Imp is unveiled to compete with the BMC Mini. It features a light-alloy 4 cylinder, 875cc slant-4 engine, originally developed by Coventry Climax to power fire pumps. Manufactured at Linwood, a new Scottish production plant, this is the first car since the 1931 Arrol Johnston, to be made in Scotland.
· NSU announce the Spyder their first car to use a Wankel engine.
· Rover introduces the 2000 P6 saloon which wins them the European Car of the Year Award.
· In Italy Feruccio Lamborghini Automobili founded in Sant'Agata near Bologna. The debut of the prototype 350 GTV takes place at the Turin Motor Show.
· Porsche’s W-RS Spyder continues its winning ways at Le Mans and the Nurburgring.

1964
· Triumph launches the 2000 family saloon.
· The Ford Mustang is ‘released’ to great acclaim and achieves sales of more than 500,000 in its firs 18 months.
· Following many years of crippling strikes at its British Light Steel Pressings Ltd factory, the Rootes Group sells a controlling interest to Chrysler.
· Despite continuing disinterest, front seat belts supplied as standard in all American cars.
· Having resigned his position after just 4 months in charge of The Leyland Motor Corporation Sir Henry Spurrier dies.
· Porsche’s W-RS Spyder wins further season championships in the hands of Edgar Barth, before final retirement.

1965
· BMC’s intended merger with the Pressed Steel Company is subjected to a report by the Monopolies Commission.
· The British government introduces a 70 mph maximum speed “as a four month experiment” which is still with us today.
· An automatic transmission, specially designed by AP is available to Mini buyers.
· Rolls Royce's launch Silver Shadow its first unit constructed car.
· Ralph Nader publishes his book 'Unsafe at Any Speed' exposing safety standards severely compromised by USA manufacturers’ cost constraints. The rear-engined Chevrolet Corvair receives Nader’s particular attention.

1966
· Jensen FF sports coupe is launched, featuring Fergusson’s four wheel drive system, Italian styling, a powerful V8 engine and anti-lock brakes.
· British Motor Holdings is created by merging The Jaguar Group (Jaguar, Daimler, Guy, Coventry Climax, Henry Meadows) with BMC.
· Ford UK update the Cortina with smoother, but boxier styling.
· Largely as a result of Ralph Nader’s expose of the American Motor industry the U.S. Congress passes a rigorous auto safety act. Rear seat belts now supplied as standard equipment in all cars sold in the USA.
· Peugeot and Renault agree to establish a partnership organisation, La Francaise de Mecanique, to manufacture common mechanical parts.
· Sir William Lyons retires as the Managing Director, becoming Chairman and Chief Executive as Jaguar Cars Limited and the British Motor Corporation Limited announce the merger of the two companies.

1967
· Panhard, France’s oldest car maker is disolved by its owners Citroen.
· NSU produce the first series production passenger car to be powered by a Wankel engine, the Ro80.
· Rover and Alvis are absorbed into the Leyland Motor Corporation.
· Ford UK introduce the crossflow engine to their product range in 1300cc and 1600cc capacities.
· Ford UK and Ford of Europe start to co ordinate development and production programmes to increase commonality of design and component use.

1968
· Ford introduces the Escort range, including a high performance ‘twin-cam’ engined version.
· The largest car company in British history is formed as British Motor Holdings merges with Leyland Motors to create British Leyland Motor Corporation.
· Rover offers the Buick-based V8 in the P6 body-shell to create the 3005, later re-named the 3500.
· As bitter strikes cripple industry Renault lose production of IOO,OOO vehicles.
· Volkswagen introduces the 411 or ‘Variant’. Based on an extended ‘Beetle’ floor-pan it features a contemporary body-style and 2 or 4 doors. An estate (station wagon) version is also available.
· Citroen buys Maserati, primarily, to take advantage of its engine know-how. Their forthcoming SM coupé will be powered by a Maserati V6 engine.
· David Brown is knighted.

1969
· Volkswagcn take over Audi.
· Jaguar launches the XJ6.
· The new British Leyland organisation introduces the Austin Maxi. Sir Alex Issigonis’s last project, in spite of its outstanding practicality, its boxy styling, sparse interior, lack of power and ‘notchy’ five-speed gearbox attracts criticism.
· Renault and Peugeot start production of common components as a result of their 1966 agreement, at Douvrin, near Lens in Northern France.
· Enzo Ferrari sells 50% of Ferrari's share capital to Fiat.

1970
· Land Rover launches an entirely new concept. The Range Rover is a luxury off-road car and, as an immediate sales success it points the way for rivals, laying the foundation for a whole new market sector.
· Citroen launches two new aerodynamic models, the GS family car and the Masserati-powered SM sports saloon.
· Italian styling house Ghia of Turin is acquired from Alessandro de Tomaso by Ford.
· Mercedes build the C III experimental car to act as a test-bed for future road-car developments. Featuring dramatic aerodynamic styling and powered by a triple rotor Wankel engine developing 280bhp, it achieved a top speed of 160mph.
· Japan’s monthly production output of 200,000 cars, makes it the world's second biggest motor manufacturer.
· Volkswagen reveals the K70, their first water cooled model.
· Kjell Qvale, Norwegan born head of the ‘British Motor Car Distributors’ in San Francisco, takes over Jensen Motors.
· The Chrysler 160/l80 range is launched at the Paris Salon.
· The General Motors’ ‘family’ come together from all parts of the globe, under the leadership of Opel, Germany, to begin a project which will result in a ‘World Car’ to rival the success of the VW beetle. For Opel it will result in the Kadette C, small family car. Internationally it becomes known as GM’s ‘T Car’.

1971
· Jensen ceases production of the four-wheel-drive ‘FF’ sports-car, but continues with the two-wheel drive ‘Interceptor’ version.
· Morris Minor production finally comes to an end.
· Peugeot and Renault join forces with Volvo to form a new joint-venture organisation. PRV will design and produce V-engines at their Douvrin production plant.
· Mercedes preview the C111-2 at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Once again a test-bed vehicle it features a four-rotor Wankel engine rated at 350 bhp which took the car to 180mph.
· Aston Martin’s financial performance causes difficulties, prompting the David Brown Group to sell to financiers. The DBS stays in production.
· Jaguar reveals their VI2 production engine, making it available in an enlarged E-type as well as XJ6 and Daimler sedans. This makes them one of only a handful of manufacturers who have ever offered this configuration on a production basis.
· Maserati introduce the Bora.

1972
· A record l,900,000 cars produced by British motor industry in this year.
· The success of Japanese cars becomes evident when Datsun becomes the second biggest importer of cars into Britain.
· Maserati introduces the Merak.
· Lotus Esprit mid-engined concept car shown on Giorgio Giugiario’s Ital Design stand at the Turin Motor Show.
· Sir William Lyons retires as chairman of Jaguar, exactly 50 years after forming the company. Labour relations and production quality problems beset the whole British Leyland organisation, of which Daimler-Jaguar is a significant part.

1973
· The Arab-Israeli War causes fuel supply problems and steep rises in pump prices for motorists throughout the world and the realisation that oil is a finite resource. The OPEC organisation becomes more powerful. In Britain motorists queue for petrol and speeds are restricted to 50mph to conserve national stocks and consumption.
· Ford opens Bordeaux plant to manufacture automatic transmissions.
· Volksvagen ‘Beetle’ production beats the Model T's record.
· Chevrolet offers airbags in some models as a reaction to a rise in fatal car accidents in the USA.
· Alfa Romeo introduce the Alfasud, a small family car featuring front wheel drive, a flat-four ‘boxer’ engine, nimble handling and a bonded-in windscreen. The car is made in a new purpose built plant near Naples in Southern Italy - ‘sud’ being Italian for South.
· The Bertone-styled Maserati Khamsin is launched into a tough sales environment.
· The first fruits of the GM ‘T Car’ project appear in Brasil, with the launch of the Chevrolet Chevette and in Germany with the Opel Kadett C. Although superficially different all T Cars share the same mechanical configuration and many significant components.

1974
· E. L. Cord dies
· Gabriel Voisin, aeronautical pioneer, industrialist and car manufacturer dies.
· The last of 11,916,519 VW ‘Beetles’ to be built at Wolfsburg, leaves the production line.
The VW Golf, a completely new water-cooled, front wheel drive model becomes and instant sales success and Karmann start production of the Scirocco sports coupe version. Both cars styled by Georgetto Guigaro.
· Peugeot takes over Citroen to form PSA.
· Plans for the Chevrolet Vega to be powered by the repeatedly delayed outcome of General Motors’ Wankel rotary engine project are abandoned and production continues with an alloy block/iron head 4 cylinder unit.
· As a result of the previous year’s the fuel crisis, American sales of large-engined cars have slumped and manufacturers start to look at ways of improving fuel econonmy.
· Ford begins research into the Stirling 'hot air' engine but having made considerable progress, as fuel prices drop back the urge to take the project all the way to production diminishes.
· In spite of one million 127s leaving their production lines Fiat find themselves in deep financial difficulties.
· The last E Type Jaguar leaves the Coventry factory.
· The Douvrin-built PRV V6 engine appears for the first time in the Volvo 264 and soon after in the Peugeot 504 Coupé and Cabriolet models.
· In an attempt to cut fatalities in the United States the maximum speed limit is reduced to 55 mph.

1975
· Production of the Ford Escort MK1comes to an end.
· Ford introduce the Escort MK2 with a squarer body style.
· In America VW launch the Golf as the Rabbit.
· Rolls Royce unveil the Camargue with Italian styling by Pininfarina, hand- built on the Silver Shadow floor pan at their Mulliner Park Ward coach-building division. Priced at £29,250, it is the first car in the world to feature completely automatic split-level air conditioning and the first Rolls Royce to be designed in metric dimensions.
· Porsche announce the 911 Carrera Turbo.
· Chrysler UK, in financial difficulties is propped up by the British Government. The introduction of the French built Alpine brings in vital sales.
· Volvo takes a majority shareholding in Holland’s DAF car and truck manufacturer.
· The Douvrin-built PRV V6 is introduced in the Peugeot 604 and Renault 30 TS models.
· Citroen replaces the DS21 with the CX which is voted European Car of the Year.
· British Leyland, struggling against a tide of strikes and a poor reputation gets an injection of £200,000,000 from the UK Government.
· Jaguar launch the XJS to replace the E type. Due to stringent American crash regulations earlier plans to include a roadster in the range have been dropped.
· Lotus Cars start production of the new mid-engined Esprit and confirm their move up-market with front-engined Eclat.
· All American cars now come with catalytic converters in the exhaust system in an effort to cut air polluting emissions.
· Citroën pulls out of Maserati, leaving Alejandro De Tomaso and GEPI to come to the rescue a few months later.
· VW introduce the Polo, the third of their ‘new generation’ cars.
· The UK gets its own version of the GM T-Car, the Vauxhall Chevette. A unique aerodynamic ‘droop-snoot’ front-end, designed by Vauxhall Chief-Stylist, Wayne Cherry complements the neat hatch-back body tub.
· Australia launches its version of the ‘T Car’, the Holden Gemini, in 4-door saloon (sedan) and stylish coupé versions.

1976
· The Chrysler Alpine voted European Car of the Year.
· The Renault Alpine A310 sports-car is launched with a rear mounted PRV ‘Douvrin’ V6 engine.
· Ford's first front drive car, the Fiesta, announced.
· The Golf GTi debuts at the Frankfurt International Motor Show establishing a new market sector later known as the ‘Hot Hatch’.
· Rover launch the 3500 ‘SD1’ a roomy saloon with Ferrari Daytona inspired styling and the ex-Buick alloy V8 engine.
· VW introduce a small diesel engine to the golf range.
· Mercedes reveal the C111-3. Where its two predecessors had been powered by Wankel rotary engines, this one has a 5 cylinder turbo-charged/inter-cooled Diesel engine producing 180 bhp. At Nardo test track on June 12th, at an average speed of around 150mph, the C111-3 either establishes or brake a total of 16 world speed and endurance records, some of which pertained regardless of its engine type.the
· Vauxhall’s ‘T Car’ Chevette appears in the UK as a 2 or 4 door saloon (sedan).

1977
· Michael Edwardes takes over the helm of the British Leyland conglomerate, together with its labour relations, production quality and public perception .
· Volkswagen cease production of the ‘Beetle’ in Germany forty years after production began.
· Rover’s 3500 ‘SD1’ wins the European Car of the Year award.
· Merger plans between Swedish manufacturers Saab and Volvo are abandoned.
· Production of the Wankel rotary engined NSU Ro80 comes to an end.
· Porsche introduce 924 and 928 models, both featuring front-mounted water-cooled engines and rear transaxles. The 924 is an aborted VW project and thus contains a high percentage of WV parts-bin components, including the engine from the Transporter van. The V8 powered 928 is eventually intended to take over from the 911 and wins the European Car of The Year Award.

1978
· The Volvo DAF conglomerate slips into financial difficulties. The Dutch Government comes to the rescue with financial aid.
· British Leyland shows substantial signs of recovery in the hands of Michael Edwardes but the company’s future is far from secure.
· Toyo Kogyo launch the Mazda RX7, a two-seat sports coupe powered by a Wankel rotary engine.
· Ford introduces the Fiesta, their first front-wheel-drive small family car. It is to be made at plants in England, Spain and Germany.

1979
· Rolls Royce Motor Company is sold to Vickers for £38m as part of the Rolls-Royce engineering group.
· Rover begins collaboration with Honda.
· Maserati Bora production comes to an end.
· Simca- Matra complete the first model of new and practical concept in personal transportation. Based on a single-box van-like shape but with a car-like interior and comfortable flexible seating for up to seven people, the P17 concept is rejected by Talbot-Simca, prompting Matra to approach Renault and to develop the concept further in prototype P18. The MPV is on its way!

1980
· Rear wheel drive Escort Mk2 production comes to an end to make way for the new front-wheel-drive Escort Mk3.
· Bitter strikes at British Leyland provoke chairman Sir Michael Edwardes to threaten "Return to work or lose your jobs."
· Daimler-Jaguar division of British Leyland gets John Egan as its new Chairman. Egan sets about rebuilding pride in the quality of design and production, lost since British Leyland’s formation.

1981
· General Motors announces the launch of the Saturn project in the USA, with the intention of creating a new brand and new products from scratch.
· John Z DeLorean, former General Motors high-flyer, launches the DMC-12, his stainless steel gull-wing dream car into a world of recession and high interest rates. Designed by Georgetto Guigaro, engineered by Lotus Cars and powered by the Douvrin PRV V6 engine it appears over-priced against stiff opposition and quality issues compound the problem.
· Maserati launch the Biturbo range of coupes, spyders and saloons powered by twin-turbocharged all-alloy V6 engines.

1982
· Honda starts production at its first US factory.
· Having built 8,563 DMC-12s, the DeLorean Motor Company’s factory in Northern Ireland goes into receivership and after a few months, the British government, DeLorean’s biggest creditor by far, issues orders to shut it down.
· Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman dies suddenly aged 54, having grown Lotus into an extraordinarily successful Grand Prix team, a substantial low-volume sports car production specialist and an extremely reputable auto-engineering consultancy.

1983
· Lexus is announced as the name of Toyota’s new luxury brand in the USA and Europe, intended to allow them to overcome brand prejudice and compete head to head with the prestige European and American manufacturers.
· Maserati end production of the Merak

1984
· Japanese manufacturer Toyo Kogyo changes its name to Mazda Motor Corporation.
· Renault release the new Espace, the first MPV, designed, developed and built for them by Matra at their assembly plant in Romorontin, near Paris.

1985
· Chrysler buys AMC and takes over production of the Jeep range.
· Founder of Jaguar, Sir William Lyons, dies as the company sees its reputation for quality and value return.

1986
· Volkswagen takes a 51% share in Spanish car makers SEAT.

1987
· The Ford Motor Company acquires a 75% shareholding in Aston Martin Lagonda.

1988
· The new Lincoln Continental is Ford’s first car with a six-cylinder engine and front-wheel drive.
· Fiat acquires additional shares in Ferrari, taking its total shareholding to 90%.
· Enzo Ferrari dies in Modena, aged 90.
· British Aerospace buys Rover Group.

1989
· General Motors takes a 50% stake in Saab of Sweden.
· General Motors introduces the Geo brand to market Suzuki, Isuzu, and Toyota models in the USA.
· Lexus introduces its first model, the LS400.
· Honda announces plans to establish European car production by expanding its existing manufacturing facilities at Swindon UK
· Honda starts Civic production at its East Liberty, Ohio plant.
· Ford takes over Jaguar Cars, promising to build on the unique identity and brand values of the Jaguar name.

1990
· Vickers Rolls Royce and BMW announce a joint venture company to build aero-engines - BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH.
· Following Czech government approval, VW establishes a new partnership with Skoda.

1992
· The Dodge Viper is released with a steel chassis, a glass-fibre body and a 400 horsepower light-alloy V10 engine.

1993
· Maserati is bought outright by Fiat.
· With development input from parent company Ford, Jaguar announces a vastly improved XJ6.
· Sir David Brown, former owner of Aston-Martin Lagonda, dies aged 89.
· Aston Martin introduce the DB7, with sleek, modern bodywork, strong six cylinder engines and Jaguar XJS underpinnings. Produced at a dedicated factory in Bloxham, near Banbury in Oxfordshire, it soon begins to achieve sales levels previously unheard of for any Aston Martin.

1994
· BMW buys Rover Cars from British Aerospace.
· McLaren Cars, previously successful as Formula 1 racing car constructors, introduce the F1 sports supercar. Designed by Gordon Murray and Peter Stevens it features a BMW V12 engine, a top speed well in excess of 200 mph and a price in excess of £500,000.00.
· The Ford Motor Company acquires the outstanding 25% interest Aston Martin Lagonda to gain complete control.

1996
· The Museum of Modern Art in New York places an early E-Type roadster on permanent display, only the third car to given this honour.
· Jaguar introduces the V8 Powered XK8 as a replacement for the venerable XJS.

1997
· Vickers put Rolls-Royce Motor Cars up for sale to the highest bidder.

1998
· Ferrari takes control of Maserati, and closes the factory for a complete refit and modernisation.
· VW announce the New Beetle. A modern stylised interpretation of the original, it shares its floor-pan and many mechanical components with the front-wheel drive Golf.
· Rolls Royce is sold after an acrimonious bidding war between Volkswagen and BMW. The final outcome is that, while VW wins the production plant at Crewe and the Bentley brand name, BMW buys the rights to use the Rolls Royce name and announces its plan to develop a new generation of cars which will be built at its own British factory from 2003.
· Chrysler and Daimler Benz merge to form Daimler-Chrysler. Initial indications are that the two businesses will remain autonomous.

1999
· Volvo sells its car-making division to Ford Motor Company but continues to manufacture trucks.
· Aston Martin becomes part of Ford’s Premier Automotive Group joining Jaguar, Lincoln and Volvo, enabling it to call on a pool of expertise, financial and technical resources which would otherwise have been way beyond its reach.

2000
· Having invested considerably in the Rover Group and struggled unsuccessfully to make it pay, BMW withdraws and ‘sells’ Rover and MG to The Phoenix Group for a token £1.00. BMW retains the rights to brands Mini, Triumph, Riley and Land Rover, the last of which it then sells to Ford.

2001
· Under the ownership of BMW Rolls-Royce move production from Derby to a new, purpose built factory next to the old Grand Prix circuit at Goodwood, West Sussex.
· BMW release the ‘NEW MINI’, a modern interpretation of the original Mini built at the former Morris Abingdon plant. Powered by a South-American built, Chrysler-sourced engine, it retains the original’s cheeky appeal and dynamic handling.
· In the UK, a new Licence-plate numbering system is introduced.
· Jaguar Cars introduce the X Type, based on an extended version of Ford’s European Mondeo floorpan with transverse engine and 4 wheel-drive.

2002
· Rolls Royce complete their new factory and commence production of the new Phantom, due for delivery to customers on the 1st January 2003.
· Named after the company's founder Enzo, Ferrari introduce the Enzo supercar. Made of carbonfibre and incorporating much else in the way of Formula 1 technology, its all-alloy, 660 bhp, V12 engine endows the Enzo with a top speed of 217.5 mph.

2003
· First customers for Rolls Royce’s New Phantom take delivery on 1st January as promised and world-wide deliveries commence.
· Production of the ‘Beetle’ finally comes to an end at VW’s Puebla, plant in Mexico.
· Matra’s production-line closes at Romorontin, following commercial failure of Renault’s Avantime and their decision to take Espace production in-house. Matra and its facilities are sold to Italian styling house and niche production specialists Pininfarina SpA, who rename the company Matra Automobile Engineering.
· Peter Morgan, son of Morgan founder ‘HFS’ dies aged 84, leaving the business in the safe hands of his son Charles.
· Now owned by Volkwagen, Bentley introduces their first all-new design. Based on VW’s large-car platform, the new Continental GT features a contemporary body (styled in-house), 4 wheel drive and an extensively re-engineered version of VW’s 6 litre W12 engine, twin-turbocharged to produce 552bhp.

2004
· Car production in the UK reaches its highest level in five years. Britain's biennial motor show has its last event at the National Exhibition Centre before its move back to London.
· More than 40 years after it was launched, the e-type Jaguar has a special exhibition devoted to it at London's Design Museum.
· Production begins on the Aston Martin Volante.
· 24 year old Russian multimillionaire Nikolas Smolensky purchased Blackpool based TVR for £15 million.

2005
·MG Rover -the last "traditional" British mid-sized car manufacturer goes into administration with the key assets finally being purchased by China based Nanjing Automobie Group. Thousands of jobs are lost although there is hope that small scale car manufacturing could return to the same Longbridge plant sometime in the future.
·Elsewhere in the Midlands, production begins on the new Aston Martin Vantage.


2006
·Honda and the MINI brand continue to help the UK economy as both enjoy increased investment resulting in new jobs. Honda plans to add a further 700 people to its UK workforce, while the world-wide success of the MINI will result in a further 1200 jobs in manufacturing and assorted component industries.
·Nissan announce that its new Qashqai car will be built at the company's Sunderland plant, with the cars being exported across the globe, including Japan. The Qashqai is described as a crossover -effectively a passenger car with a sleek dynamic top half combined with SUV attributes of large pronounced wheel arches and slightly elevated ground clearance. In terms of its size its sits between C-segment hatchbacks and SUVs.
·Lotus announces it is to produce a new mid-engined sports car which should be available in about two years time.
·The 1½ millionth Honda Civic rolls of the production line at Bridgend.
·TVR, the innovative Blackpool based specialist sports car company finally closes its doors after a long battle to remain in production. Owners, enthusiasts and employees meet up for a final celebration in Blackpool.
·The British Motor Show returns to London after several decades in the West Midlands. The new venue is the Excel Centre on the banks of the River Thames and nearly 500,000 people attend.
The 30,000th Aston Martin is produced, while the Jaguar XK coupe wins Britain's car of the year award and luxury car of the year awards.

2007
·The Bentley marque enjoys continued success under the parentage of Volkswagen and its newest model is the company's fastest ever production car -the Bentley Continental GT Speed. It has a top speed of over 200 mph and can get from 0-60 mph in just 4.3 seconds. It is offered for sale in Britain at £137,500.
·Manufacturers around the world put more effort and resources into designing and building more environmentally friendly vehicles as the price of oil increases and there is greater awareness of the damage that harmful pollutants are causing from traditional petrol based engined cars.
·Britain's young motor racing star Lewis Hamilton very nearly becomes the new world F1 motor racing champion in his first season -eventually being beaten in the final race. His success though reignites interest in motor sport around the world.


2008
·Ford accepts an offer by the rapidly expanding Tata Motors of India for the purchase of Land Rover and Jaguar. The Indian company say their aim is to ensure the cars will remain essentially British.
·As the Model T celebrates its 100th anniversary, Ford also announces plans for a year long celebration of the iconic car around the world. One initiative is for a surviving car to be displayed in the "glass tank' outside the Design Museum in London.
·The new Roewe 550 is unveiled at the Shanghai Motor Show in China with the hope that the car may eventually be produced at the old MG Rover plant at Longbridge.
·In the US, General Motors announces annual losses for 2007 of $39 billion -the largest ever loss by a US car manufacturer and a further sign that many of the older established car makers are struggling to compete with the surge of production from Asia.

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